What is the internet of things?

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The internet of things (IOT) has been defined as a, ‘system consisting of networks of sensors, actuators and smart objects whose purpose is to interconnect all things.’ The IOT are the most significant developing technologies in recent years. Current applications of the IOT include: The Health sectors – monitoring patients. Agricultural – using drones and […]


As cybercrime is such a broad area that can be linked to traditional crimes, as well as computer only crimes, there is no consistent definition of cybercrime. However, it has been stated that computers need to be either the target or the tool of the crime for it to be considered a cybercrime. Cybercrime tends […]

Cyber-dependant crime

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Cyber-dependant crimes can only be committed using a computer and in these offences, technology is usually also the target. This can be as simple as unauthorised access to a computer by logging into a system without permission, or as sophisticated as hackers gaining remote access. Fraudulent emails asking for personal and security information known as […]

E-commerce regulatory bodies

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This piece is going to briefly discuss the regulatory bodies that are an authority of e-commerce and associated areas. There is no regulatory body that has overall responsibility for the regulation of e-commerce. There are several bodies that enforce certain laws that apply to e-commerce. Some of which are: Chartered Trading Standards Institute – Protects […]

Why does e-commerce matter?

The digital sector is one of the United Kingdoms (UK) most important sectors. It has a substantial economic value and has the potential to increase growth and innovation. The UK’s government has continued to improve policy and prepare legislation, that acknowledges the benefits of an open and thriving digital sector. In the UK’s non-financial sector e-commerce […]

What must your online business do to protect its service?

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As a business that operates online what obligations do you have to guarantee to protect the security of any internet transactions. The Privacy and Electronic Communication Regulations 2003, The Network and Information Systems Regulations (NIS) 2018, and the Communications Act 2003 impose obligations on providers of public electronic networks, to have adequate and sufficient, technical […]

What legislation controls e-commerce?

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There is a lot of legislation that governs a business operating on the internet. Some of which is based on European Union (EU) legislation. The following is a list of some important legislation that controls e-commerce: The Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 – Among other things it states the information that must be given […]

What is an information society service?

Other articles have often mentioned information society services (ISS) so this article will discuss in more detail what an ISS is. The E-Commerce Directive aimed to provide free movement of ISS and to regulate providers of ISS across the European Union (EU). The E-Commerce Regulations 2002 defines ISS by reference to the E-Commerce Directive. It […]

What is an intermediation service?

Another article has discussed what e-commerce activities would and would not be classed as an information society service (ISS), in relation to the E-Commerce Directive and the E-Commerce Regulations 2002. It pointed out that intermediation services that form part of other overall services would not be an ISS, but what is an intermediation service. First, […]

A brief note about e-commerce financial services after Brexit.

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The United Kingdom (UK) is in the transition/implementation period which currently ends on the 31 December 2020. During this period, the UK is mostly treated as if it were still a European Union (EU) Member State. During the transition period trade negotiations are taking place, but what happens to e-commerce and financial services if the […]