All you need to know about online Competition law!


Competition law interacts with the online sector in several ways. This includes the European Commission’s Digital Single Market strategy and the related e-commerce sector inquiry. There are few ongoing competition concerns regarding the online sector which include platform bans, geo-blocking, and resale price maintenance (RPM). It has been questioned whether the current competition regulatory framework […]

What are consumer rights?

Solicitor dressed as a superhero

Many of the other articles have mentioned the Consumer Rights Act (CRA) 2015 as it is an extremely important act of parliament that governs the sale and supply of goods, services, and digital content to consumers. A consumer is defined as ‘an individual acting for the purposes that are wholly or mainly outside that individuals […]

What is geo-blocking?


Geo-blocking is technology that restricts access to internet content based upon the user’s geographical location. The Geo-blocking Regulation (EU) 2018/302 was adopted on 28 February 2018. It applies in all European Union (EU) Member States from the 3 December 2018. The regulation prohibits discrimination based on a customers’ place of residence, nationality, or place of […]

Requirements to assess before starting an online business

Starting an online business in such times appears a good plan, as people around the world have been urged to take their spending habits online. However, there are a few aspects worth considering before you launch yourself into the idea. Business Identity As per the Companies Act 2006, you must be sure to disclose certain […]

What is an E-signature?

This article is going to discuss the use of Electronic signatures. E-signatures are recognised under English law. The legal framework for e-signatures in the United Kingdom (UK) is founded on the Electronic Services Regulations 2014, also known as eIDAS. It came into effect on 1 July 2016 and was applied in the UK with the […]

Regulations concerning electronic payments

typing on a keyboard

This article is going to briefly discuss the use of electronic payments. The use of a payment service is bound by a complex set of regulatory requirements. It involves several regulators such as, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). The Payment Services Directive ((EU) 2015/2366) which is applied in the United Kingdom (UK) with the Payment […]

Regulations for doing business online

online shopping

If you are conducting your business online, then you should be aware several regulations to abide by. The English law that governs the conduct of online business is set out in several different statutory instruments. Some are specific to online trade whilst others apply to all business activity. This area of law has been increasingly […]

Offering sales promotions

Sales promotions are seen everywhere, money off, two for one offer, free items with certain orders, time limited offers, prize draws, or competitions. They are valuable marketing tools which can incentivise consumers to purchase a product, purchase more products or, to build/maintain brand awareness. Overall, they can drive up sales volumes. However, when offering a […]

Sales promotions (CAP Code)

The UK Code of Non-broadcast Advertising, Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing (CAP Code) states that advertisements should be legal, decent, honest, and truthful. They should be prepared with a sense of responsibility towards consumers and society. They should adhere to the principles of fair competition. Section 8 of the CAP Code defines a sales promotion […]

The A’s to your Q’s on e-commerce!

online shopping

What is e-commerce and why is it so important? In short, e-commerce is the term covering the buying and selling of goods and services online. Traditional commerce has always come in a physical form, e.g. the customer visiting a shop and purchasing goods in person, however, in an ever-growing tech world, everything is moving online. […]